Jendek, E. Zootaxa Zootaxa 1 : A critical review. Springer, Berlin, pp. A recent bulletin reports Bactra bactana Lepidotpera: Tortricidae attacking sweet peppers, Capsicum annuum, for the first time Roditakis et al. The infestation was detected in two greenhouses in Southern Crete, Greece, where moth larvae caused typical symptoms of a fruit borer, including small holes on the surface of the peppers and internal damage due to feeding activity.
Unknown factors are expected to have facilitated the major host shift as the moth coexists with peppers in other parts of Europe without causing damage. Species from this genus have been used for the control of weeds. This find highlights the need for extensive host plant testing when considering the release of biocontrol agents. Although some associations cannot be predicted, host plants of clear economic value should be considered for inclusion in these tests, even if the range of known hosts of a control agent is narrow.
In September , Orobanche ludoviciana Louisiana broomrape was found parasitizing the roots of sunflower plants in a commercial sunflower production field in Kimball County, Nebraska.
It was the first report of any Orobanche species parasitizing commercial sunflowers in the western hemisphere. Orobanche species are obligate parasitic plants that establish vascular connections to roots of host plants from which they draw nutrients and water. Orobanche cumana is a well-known widespread and economically damaging pest of sunflowers in Europe. The species in question, O.
In Canada, it is found in southern British Columbia and the Prairie Provinces and is known to parasitize other members of the Asteraceae family esp. Ambrosia and Artemisia Scoggan, The plants have pink stems and purple flowers, and arise from the base of the host plant. The parasitized plants were significantly stunted, with smaller heads and thinner stalks.
It is uncertain if yields were impacted. This new finding has raised some concern for sunflower growers in the Great Plains region. In Canada, sunflowers represent a small but important part of the Prairie agricultural industry. Approximately 35, ha of sunflowers are seeded each year, resulting in an annual production of about 67, tonnes of sunflower seeds Statistics Canada, Awareness of this plant and its potential to parasitize sunflowers may be important for early detection and management of infections should they occur.
Plant Health Progress doi Statistics Canada. Field and special crops. Ballast water has long been recognized as a significant vector for the transport and introduction of new invasive species both in Canada and around the world.
خرید آنلاین فایل Host Plants of World Agrilus (Coleoptera, Buprestidae): A Critical Review |اِکس تی
Ballast is taken on board ships to control their stability and trim, but because it is typically taken up and released in different locations it can facilitate the rapid movement of species, sometimes over large distances. Ballast water is attributed with introducing a number of harmful invasive species in Canada, including zebra mussels, quagga mussels, round goby and spiny water flea in the Great Lakes Region, and others such as the green crab and common periwinkle in coastal areas.
Ballast water and associated sediment can also be a vector for aquatic and wetland plants, and associated pests and diseases. In Canada, ballast water management BWM guidelines have been in place since the s, and statutory regulations under the Canada Shipping Act have been in effect since Current regulations apply to all Canadian vessels worldwide, as well as non-Canadian vessels operating in waters under Canadian jurisdiction. They require ballast water to be treated, exchanged, transferred to a reception facility or retained on board, to minimize the possibility of spreading harmful organisms.
By far the most common management method used in Canada and around the world is mid-ocean exchange MOE , which works on the principle of differences in water conditions primarily salinity between source and exchange locations.
For example, many ships take up and release ballast in freshwater ports, crossing the ocean in between. Exchanging the ballast mid-ocean exposes freshwater organisms to intolerable salinity levels, and ensures that ballast exchange occurs between ecologically different zones, thus lowering the risk of invasion. However, there are a number of limitations to existing regulations and the practice of MOE, particularly for vessels moving and practicing MOE within or between marine systems where salinity levels are similar.
Currently, Transport Canada is deliberating how to proceed with implementation of the IMO D-2 standards, and the exact nature and timing of any new BWM requirements at the national level remains unclear. In the meantime, Transport Canada has initiated discussions with the CFIA about possible implications of these new requirements for the risk associated with plants and plant pests that could be transported in ballast water or associated sediment.
Marine Pollution Bulletin 91 1 : Mills, E.
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Diversity of GM crop types and traits are increasing at all stages of development. Crop types are currently dominated by maize, cotton, soybean and oilseed rape. However, biomass for liquid fuels and industrial products is becoming an important sub-sector of GM crops, driven by market demand. Rice and potatoes are also major upcoming GM crops, and cereals, fruits and vegetables are also under development in Brazil, India and China. Public developers in India and China are becoming increasingly active in GM crop development.
New, smaller companies are emerging in the United States, India and other parts of Asia.
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Although herbicide-tolerance and insect-tolerance are the most dominant traits for GM crops, herbicide-tolerance traits are shifting from glyphosate and glufosinate to other active ingredients such as sulfonylurea, 2,4-D, dicamba, isoxaflutole and oxynil. New and emerging traits are being developed worldwide, particularly in Asia, including insect-resistant eggplant India , insect-resistant poplar China and virus-resistant bean Indonesia.
Important traits in African countries include insect and disease tolerance, abiotic stress tolerance i. The development of crops with more than one improved agronomic trait is becoming increasingly common. Stacked varieties are projected to play a major role in the development of upcoming GM crops. Unfortunately, there are large discrepancies in the regulatory treatment of stacked varieties across countries, which can result in asynchronous authorization. In summary, the current trend towards increasing development and cultivation of GM crops in diverse geographic regions is projected to continue.
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We often remark about the great potential of emerging technologies, but rarely do we observe them moving quickly from discovery to commercialization. Since , when CRISPRs were first engineered to target specific genetic sequences in vitro, the technology has been used to successfully edit bacterial, fungal, animal and plant genomic sequences in vivo.
Moreover, an intense foundational technology patent battle has emerged between scientists at the University of California, Berkley and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. The outcome of this patent battle will influence hundreds of millions of dollars already committed to CRISPR-based companies. The Zhang patent was granted in April , while the Doudna-Charpentier application was still being processed 2 years later.
This process, called patent interference, functions much like a court case and will likely see both Doudna and Zhang deposed under oath with evidence used to establish what group invented the technique first. Many expect that laboratory notes will play a large part in establishing the timeline.
The outcome of these proceedings will be important for the agricultural biotechnology sector. This partnership also divvies up the agricultural crop space; DuPont will develop crops like maize, soybean and canola, while Caribou Biosciences will be responsible for fruits and vegetables. Primo quadro d'Insieme Coleoptera, Buprestidae. Fragmenta Entomologica , 19 1 , — In : Minelli, A. Bolletino dell'Associazione Romana di Entomologia , 57 1—4 , 27— Gutowski, J.
In : Gutowski, J. In : Bogdanowicz, W. Pilipiuk, I. Fauna of Poland. Characteristics and Checklist of Species. Tom I, Volume I, Annelida. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne , 69, — Buprestidae Coleoptera of the Koziencka forest. Parki narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody , 27 2 , 49— Hebert P. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B , , — Hellrigl, K.