More than 9 out of 10 detachments can be repaired. Failure to repair the retina always results in loss of vision to some degree. When a detachment occurs, the photoreceptors rods and cones start to degenerate. The sooner the detachment is repaired, the sooner the rods and cones will begin to recover.
However, once the retina has detached, the photoreceptors may never recover completely.
About The Detachment
Scleral buckling; Vitrectomy; Pneumatic retinopexy; Laser retinopexy; Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair. Guluma K, Lee JE. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; chap Scleral buckling surgery. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; chap 6. Wickham L, Aylward GW. Optimal procedures for retinal detachment repair.
Yanoff M, Cameron D. Diseases of the visual system. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; chap Updated by: Franklin W. Editorial team.
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Retinal detachment repair. Pneumatic retinopexy gas bubble placement is most often an office procedure.
The eye doctor injects a bubble of gas into the eye. You are then positioned so the gas bubble floats up against the hole in the retina and pushes it back into place. The doctor will use a laser to permanently seal the hole. The following procedures are done in a hospital or outpatient surgery center: The scleral buckle method indents the wall of the eye inward so that it meets the hole in the retina.
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Scleral buckling can be done using numbing medicine while you are awake local anesthesia or when you are asleep and pain free general anesthesia. The vitrectomy procedure uses very small devices inside the eye to release tension on the retina. This allows the retina to move back into its proper position. Most vitrectomies are done with numbing medicine while you are awake.
In complex cases, both procedures may be done at the same time. Why the Procedure is Performed.
Risks for retinal detachment surgery include: Bleeding Detachment that is not completely fixed may require more surgeries Increase in eye pressure elevated intraocular pressure Infection General anesthesia may be needed. The risks for any anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems breathing You may not recover full vision. After the Procedure. In a startlingly modern way, Lebrun used scientific knowledge to assess condition, and expressed chagrin over the loss of the enamel appearance of the original surface, caused when pressure was applied to fix the new canvas to the back of the paint layers.
Clearly, by some French experts were showing more sensitivity to the physical and aesthetic features of the painting as a whole. Peter the Dominican in Venice, which apparently was taken away in pieces. Similarly, the French strove to have mural paintings detached to render them portable. Peter the Dominican, Originally in SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice. Yet, to understand the French impulse to detach frescoes, involves the recognition that detachment had been associated with the technique of transfer by Frenchmen for at least half a century.
Some of the early practitioners experimented with both techniques, and several intelligent commentators discussed the procedures in the same breath. Architects and engineers — in other words, specialists from the mechanical arts — were hired to cut out part of the wall to release the painting. John the Baptist and St. Francis during renovations to the choir of Sta. Croce, Florence, in As the fragments of music-making angels and apostles now on display at the Vatican reveal, the detachment mutilated the original.
Both involved separating the mural from most, if not all, of its backing, which could never have been easy or straight-forward, and always resulted in extensive damage. The methods were basically those still in use today: stacco , in which the painting and the lime plaster immediately underneath were removed together; and strappo , in which only the paint layer was detached.
Surviving records credit Isidoro Frezza of Naples with the invention of the stacco method in the years One of the first accounts of a strappo detachment involved an a secco mural by Caracciolo , which was removed in by Alessandro Majello from a lunette in San Giuseppe in Naples and reattached to wood panel. For the strappo technique, the fresco first was faced with a cloth applied with water-soluble glue, and sometimes the shrinkage of the facing as it dried was sufficient to separate the pigmented layer from the plaster. Many had heard about the early detachments, which had attracted large audiences in a manner akin to other events of science and engineering, and were described by journalists.
Sebastian from the wall of a chapel in the Vatican Basilica and move the painting to Sta. Maria degli Angeli alle Terme Oil mural from St. Maria degli Angeli, to the right of the high altar. The transfer expert seems to have been Domenico Michelini In one of his letters written from Italy in , he remarked that if a method similar to transfer might be found for frescoes it would be the answer to the problem of preserving the works by Raphael and Giulio Romano at the Vatican and the Villa Farnesina, which were deteriorating in their humid environments The French were keen for experts in the sciences and the mechanical arts to contribute to advances in art preservation.
Attuned to the relationship between the sciences and restoration, it can be taken for granted that the French in Italy would have been drawn to compare familiar techniques of transfer with what were for them more novel experiments in detachment. For example, frequently the critical problem was flaking paint caused by an undermined support, either insect infestations to the wood panel, or destabilized intonaco plaster in the case of a fresco, typically caused by water damage.
On the other hand, several stark differences in the way the practices were carried out may also have become apparent. However, the atmosphere there encouraged experimentation with new procedures and a substantial amount of risk seems to have been allowed, even when the pictures were by Raphael and Andrea del Sarto. The practitioners involved in the development of detachment methods, as might have been predicted, were inhibited by problems similar to those encountered in transfers.
The original support had to be replaced by a new one that would prove to be adequate over the long term. Lacking modern rigid support materials, however, early practitioners had to mount wall paintings on canvas or other more solid backings which were ill-suited and caused severe surface distortions. The structural transformation gave rise to a sequence of physical and aesthetic changes. As criticism of the damaging effects of incautious strappo detachments mounted, by the early nineteenth century restorers retreated to the somewhat safer stacco technique.
Significantly, Pietro Palmaroli, who worked during the French Occupation of Rome, helped to improve the stacco technique out of concern for the surface qualities of paintings.
On this note, it is important to recognize that, whereas on French soil art experts had been willing to proceed where the risks were high because of the heady spirit of experimentation, Italians often were more cautious. Michael , to illustrate how the Italians were reluctant to detach paintings of great artistic merit unless the building was being destroyed. By the late seventeenth century, the loggia belonging to the Villa Farnesina was in a dangerous state, with loose areas of intonaco in the frescoed vault and the loss of paint imminent.
The decorative loggia had been designed by Raphael with scenes from the pagan story of Cupid and Psyche and painted in fresco by his workshop in for Agostino Chigi. In , the prominent painter and academician Carlo Maratta was brought in urgently to find a solution.
Detachment would have been an option considered, but quickly rejected, since Maratta had to find a way to preserve the frescoes in situ for the continuing pleasure of the owners. To stabilize the vault, therefore, he drew on a technical method previously employed in another one of the mechanical arts, printing: T- and L-shaped nails were inserted to secure the plaster In other words, in Italy detachment was an approach rarely considered by established restorers, and typically only undertaken when a painting had to be removed because a building was going to be demolished or was threatening to collapse.
After the French troops entered Rome in , plans were quickly set in motion to detach the coveted fresco, as the German writer Fernow reported from Rome on October 1, and the extraction was begun in January Jerome, both of which had already been confiscated. Jerome , , Pinacoteca, Vatican. Once rendered portable, the paintings could be shipped to Paris.
Certainly in retrospect, the detachment of famous frescoes becomes just part of the larger process of obtaining treasures, when set alongside other excessively arrogant requests. By the time the French entered and then occupied Rome, a great number of cultural objects already had been taken as war booty. Nevertheless, as letters and journals by contemporaries reveal, their acquisitiveness was not yet nearly satisfied. Two principal obstacles shattered this irrational desire: the unbelievable costs and the bureaucratic roadblocks that the Roman consuls put in place to hold up the process.
Certainly, we should not downplay that many of the altarpieces shipped to Paris underwent enormous changes in function and viewing when they were taken out of chapel settings and placed, instead, in art galleries. Those subjected to the transfer procedure were altered structurally in a way that changed their surface appearance forever. However, the transformations resulting from detachment, arguably, were greater still. Paintings executed directly on wall surfaces, from which they never were intended to be severed, were removed from the original cycle in a way that violated the integrity of the entire composition.
They were mounted onto moveable supports and exhibited in completely different situations. Often only parts of the composition could be detached, which resulted in the creation of a set of fragments. As a result of detailed deliberations on site, Camuccini asked Palmaroli to carrying out a stacco detachment, specifying in his report that the fresco was being detached only in order to save it from the water leakage and the structural instability of the chapel.
Of course, once detached, another threat arose: the painting potentially would be available for confiscation by the French. Palmaroli also described his repainting using an encaustic medium and mastic Although Palmaroli was admired in his day for the skilful manner in which he had detached the Deposition under precarious circumstances, Inspector Camuccini was not satisfied with the retouching.
Seven years later, Camuccini was still disturbed by the surface, and asked that he be allowed, once again, to rework the fresco.